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IELTS Essay Writing - Essential Sentence Starters - Article

Updated: Feb 17, 2023

In the second part, you have to write an essay with a minimum of 250 words. This involves commenting on an issue or problem which is presented in the task.


You are expected to discuss various points of view and arrive at a conclusion.


Topics are varied and might include health, lifestyles, environment, or education, but you do not have to have any special knowledge to be able to do the task.


You are expected to write in a neutral or formal style.


Presenting an impartial opinion


In the IELTS Writing Task 2, "presenting an impartial opinion" means to express a neutral or balanced view on a given topic, rather than taking a strong stance for or against it. This means that you should consider both sides of an argument and provide a fair assessment of the issue, rather than showing bias towards one particular viewpoint. When writing your essay, it's important to support your points with relevant examples and evidence, and to avoid using emotionally charged language or making unsupported claims. The aim is to present a well-reasoned and unbiased argument that showcases your ability to analyze complex issues and communicate your ideas in a clear and concise manner.


It is often argued / said that ____


It is generally agreed that ____


Some / Many people believe / say / think / feel / argue that ____


Language used to express an impartial opinion can include phrases such as “objectively”, “unbiasedly”, “without prejudice”, “without preference”, and “without bias”.


Here are five examples used in context:


1: "Objectively speaking, the new policy appears to be beneficial to all parties involved."


2: "An unbiased opinion suggests that this is the best course of action."


3: "Without prejudice, it is clear that the implementation of this plan would be beneficial."


4: "Without preference, it is reasonable to infer that this decision will be beneficial in the long run."


5: "Without bias, this appears to be the most effective solution to the problem at hand."


Outlining contrasting views


Outlining contrasting views" in IELTS Writing Task 2 means to present different perspectives or opinions on a given topic and to highlight the differences and similarities between them. This involves not only identifying the different positions, but also explaining the reasons for them, and providing evidence and examples to support each viewpoint. When outlining contrasting views, it is important to be fair and impartial and to present each perspective in a balanced manner, without taking sides or expressing personal opinions. The aim is to provide a comprehensive and objective overview of the topic, and to demonstrate your understanding of the complexity of the issue at hand. By doing this, you can show your ability to evaluate and analyze different viewpoints, and to present your ideas in a clear, well-organized and persuasive manner.


Despite claims that ____


While/Whereas it may be true that ____, on the other hand ...


On the other side of the argument, ____


However/Nevertheless/Despite (the fact that) ____


Language used to express outlining contrasting views can include words and phrases such as:


1. "In contrast..."

2. "On the other hand..."

3. "While some would argue..."

4. "However..."

5. "In comparison..."


Examples used in context:


1. "In contrast, some would argue that there are public benefits to increasing taxes, such as improved infrastructure and education."


2. "On the other hand, those opposed to increasing taxes fear it would lead to an overall decrease in purchasing power in the short term."


3. "While some would argue that taxes should not be increased, others believe it is necessary in order to fund necessary services."


4. "However, those who argue against increasing taxes argue that it would lead to decreased economic growth."


5. "In comparison, those in favour of increasing taxes argue that it would lead to greater economic growth in the long run."


Refuting an argument


Refuting an argument" in IELTS Writing Task 2 means to challenge or dispute a particular perspective or claim made in the prompt or question, by presenting counter-arguments and evidence to support your own position. This involves recognizing the weaknesses or flaws in the argument, and presenting reasons why it is incorrect or not fully supported by the evidence. When refuting an argument, it is important to be clear and concise in your presentation, and to provide evidence and examples to support your counter-arguments. It is also important to remain impartial and objective, and to avoid using emotive or biased language. By doing this, you can demonstrate your ability to analyze complex issues, to evaluate arguments, and to present your own ideas in a clear and convincing manner.


Although some believe that ____, we should consider ____


Critics may say ____ However, ____


It could be argued that ____ / It is difficult to accept this as ____


While it might be argued that ____ , the truth of the matter is ____


Though it is true that ____ , we should also bear in mind that ____


When refuting an argument, you can use words and phrases such as "contradict," "debunk," "invalidate," or "disprove."


Here are 5 examples used in context:


1. The article's central premise was debunked by experts in the field.


2. His argument was invalidated due to lack of evidence.


3. Studies have contradicted his claims about global warming being a hoax.


4. Recent research has disproved many previously-held beliefs on the topic.


5. My rebuttal exposed numerous flaws in his reasoning and conclusions.


Describing cause and effect


Describing cause and effect" in IELTS Writing Task 2 means to analyze the relationship between two events or conditions, where one event (the cause) leads to another event (the effect). This type of essay requires you to identify and explain the cause(s) of a particular phenomenon or issue, and the effect(s) that result from it. The aim is to provide a clear and well-supported explanation of the relationship between the cause and effect, and to demonstrate your understanding of the topic. When writing about cause and effect, it is important to be clear and concise in your presentation, and to provide evidence and examples to support your ideas. It is also important to consider the wider context of the issue and to consider any potential limitations or confounding factors that might impact the relationship between cause and effect. By doing this, you can demonstrate your ability to analyze complex relationships and to present your ideas in a clear, well-organized and persuasive manner.


Consequently, ____


As a result, ____


This means that ____


To express cause and effect when writing an essay, you can use words such as “resulted in,” “led to,” “caused,” “triggered,” and “produced.”


Here are five examples used in context:


1. The teacher's strict grading policy resulted in a decline in student motivation.


2. The rise in housing prices led to an increase in consumer debt.


3. The warm winter caused an early spring bloom.


4. Unrest in the Middle East triggered a rise in global oil prices.


5. The decline in manufacturing output produced a decrease in employment opportunities.


Providing supporting evidence


Providing supporting evidence" in IELTS Writing Task 2 refers to the process of presenting facts, statistics, examples, and other relevant information to support your position on the given topic. The purpose of providing supporting evidence is to strengthen your argument and make it more convincing to the reader.


When writing an IELTS essay, it's important to provide enough supporting evidence to demonstrate your understanding of the topic and to show that you have thought deeply about the issue. You should aim to include a variety of different types of evidence, such as facts and figures, expert opinions, and personal experiences, to make your argument more compelling.


Overall, the key to providing effective supporting evidence is to make sure it is relevant, credible, and directly supports your position on the topic.


The language used to express “providing supporting evidence” when writing an essay includes phrases such as:


1. “This is supported by...”


Example: “This is supported by recent research findings that the species is declining in the region.”


2. “Multiple sources indicate...”


Example: “Multiple sources indicate that the species has experienced a significant decrease in population size over the past decade.”


3. “As demonstrated/shown by...”


Example: “As demonstrated by data from numerous surveys, the species is becoming increasingly rare.”


4. “For instance/example...”


Example: “For instance, a study conducted in the region documented a decrease in the species’ population size by 40%.”


5. “This is evidenced by...”


Example: “This is evidenced by the increasing number of reports of the species’ absence in its former range.”


Attributing cause


Attributing cause" refers to the act of attributing or assigning a reason or explanation for a particular event or situation. In IELTS Writing Task 2, "owing to," "on account of," and "due to" are commonly used expressions to indicate the cause of a particular event or phenomenon. These expressions are used to show that one thing happened as a result of something else and to establish a causal relationship between two events or factors. For example, "Due to the increase in traffic, the journey to work has become longer and more difficult." This sentence implies that the increase in traffic is the cause of the longer and more difficult journey to work.


When attributing cause, you can use words and phrases such as "attributed to," "due to," "because of," or "as a result of."


Here are 5 examples used in context:


1. The rise in prices was attributed to higher demand.


2. His success was due to hard work and dedication.


3. Failure was because of inadequate preparation.


4. Her poor performance was as a result of lack of practice.


5. The accident happened due to negligence on their part


Linking arguments/reasons


Linking arguments/reasons" refers to the act of connecting different ideas or arguments in a piece of writing, usually to build a stronger case for a particular point of view. In IELTS Writing Task 2, "Furthermore," "Moreover," and "In addition" are linking expressions used to add additional points or reasons to support an argument. These expressions show that the writer is building on their previous points and adding to their argument.


For example:


"Moreover, the increased use of technology has made it easier for people to work from home. In addition, it has also helped to reduce the amount of time and money spent on commuting."


"For one thing, the increase in population has put a strain on resources such as water and energy. For another, it has also led to a rise in traffic congestion and air pollution."


In both of these examples, the writer is using linking expressions to add additional reasons to support their argument. "For one thing" and "for another" are also commonly used linking expressions that show the writer is presenting two contrasting points.


When linking arguments or reasons, you can use words and phrases such as "in addition," "moreover," "furthermore," or "meanwhile."


Here are 5 examples used in context:


1. In addition to this, I would also like to point out that...


2. Moreover, the impact of this decision will be felt by all.


3. Furthermore, it is important to consider other perspectives on the issue.


4. Meanwhile, we should not ignore the potential risks involved with this approach.


5. Lastly, we must take into account how our actions affect others around us.


Giving a personal opinion


Giving a personal opinion" refers to expressing one's own personal viewpoint, thoughts, or beliefs about a particular topic or issue. In IELTS Writing Task 2, it is important to express a clear and well-supported opinion, and the following expressions are commonly used to give a personal opinion:


  • In my opinion, ...

  • I (generally) agree that ...

  • I think that it's reasonable to say that ...

  • I tend to think that ...


These expressions show that the writer is expressing their own personal view and not necessarily stating a fact. For example:


"In my opinion, the rise of technology has had both positive and negative effects on society."


"I think that it's reasonable to say that the increased use of technology has made our lives easier in many ways."


"I tend to think that the impact of technology on the environment is a serious concern that needs to be addressed."


By using these expressions, the writer is indicating that their opinions are subjective and open to interpretation, and that they are not making a statement of fact.


When giving a personal opinion, you can use words and phrases such as "in my opinion," "I believe," "it seems to me," or "from what I understand."


Here are 5 examples used in context:


1. In my opinion, the current policy is inadequate for solving the issue.


2. I believe that this approach would be beneficial in the long run.


3. It seems to me that we should take a more holistic view of the situation


4. From what I understand, these steps will lead us closer to our goal


5. Personally, I think that it is important to weigh all options before making a decision.


Concluding


Concluding" refers to the act of bringing a piece of writing to an end by summarizing the main points and expressing a final opinion or conclusion. In IELTS Writing Task 2, it is important to conclude the essay by summarizing the main points and restating the opinion in a clear and concise manner. The following expressions are commonly used to conclude an essay:


  • "In short / conclusion / summary, ..."

  • "To conclude / summarise / sum up, ..."

  • "Overall, I think the most important thing is ..."


These expressions show that the writer is bringing the essay to a close and summarizing the main points. For example:


"To conclude, the rise of technology has had both positive and negative impacts on society, and it is important to find a balance between these effects."


"Overall, I think the most important thing is to consider the impact of technology on society and the environment, and to find ways to use it in a responsible and sustainable manner."


By using these expressions, the writer is summarizing the main points of their argument and providing a final opinion, which helps to give the essay a clear and concise conclusion.

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